Inhoud en verpakking? Beïnvloeding via het informatiedomein!

Wat een kwaliteit! Breda heeft La Bohème, Amsterdam Puccini en de zuiderburen zweren bij Leonidas: pralines en bonbons van topklasse qua smaak en vorm. Wat een plaatje! Het hoofdstedelijke Rijksmuseum heeft de Nachtwacht en het Gemeentemuseum in de hofstad heeft Victory Boogie Woogie: iconen in de kunstgeschiedenis.

Maar beide museumdirecteuren (en de premier) sloegen pas echt hun slag door pontificaal met president Obama voor het pronkstuk te poseren. De combinatie pronkstuk-met-president gaat nog steeds wereldwijd rond en stelt het klassieke beeld bij van Hollandse kaas, klompen en keuterboeren. Kunstenaars en slimme kooplui in de BV Nederland: kennelijk met effect, want na de Nuclear Security Summit van 2014 steeg het bezoekersaantal van beide musea andermaal.[1]

Maar waar gaat het nu om? Om de inhoud of de verpakking? Inhoud verdient een goede verpakking en met een doordacht fraaie verpakking komt die inhoud beter tot zijn recht. Deze gedachtegang zit ook achter het idee dat militaire actie (de inhoud) op een slimme manier in beeld kan worden gebracht, gecommuniceerd kan worden (de verpakking), zodat het beoogde effect nog beter tot zijn recht komt. Deze combinatie actie-plaatje herkennen we in de diverse doctrines waarbij informatieactiviteiten overige fysieke acties ondersteunen. Precies in die volgorde: het accent ligt op de fysieke actie, het plaatje is bijzaak.

Dat het ook anders kan signaleert David Kilcullen: ‘In military terms, for Al Qaeda the ‘main effort’ is information; for us, information is a supporting effort’.[2] Al-Qaida en ISIS (of Daesh) benadrukken de boodschap (verpakking) en voegen naar believen inhoud (actie) toe. Denk maar aan de relatief beperkte inzet van middelen in relatie tot de impact van 9/11. Of aan de beelden van de barbaarse praktijken van ISIS. Voor dat doel houden zij er professionele media-afdelingen, (online) glossy’s en een grote schare volgers op na.[3]

Is het inderdaad zo dat slechts groepen zoals al-Qaida en ISIS zich van deze methoden kunnen bedienen? Zeker niet, zie bijvoorbeeld het intensieve Russische gebruik van beeldvorming (en misleiding) in de Krim en Oekraïne. En vice versa.[4] En de Israëlische IDF Spokespersons Unit is reeds langer in dit domein actief.[5] Meer verpakking dus? Of zien we verpakking als alternatief voor actie? Dat laatste zou aansluiten bij het fenomeen soft power[6] en een zelfstandige betekenis van activiteiten in het informatiedomein. Met inderdaad aandacht voor informatie, perceptie, subtiele beïnvloeding en overtuiging, zonder per se (ook) hard power of actie te gebruiken. Verpakking als ‘zachte actie’ zogezegd.

Kennelijk heeft de Britse landmacht dit zo begrepen. De in 2014 opgerichte Security Assistance Group gaat vanaf dit jaar verder als 77 (UK) Brigade.[7] De ruim 400 man/vrouw sterke brigade bestaat uit een Media Operations Group, een Security Capacity Building Team en een Psychological Operations Group. Zij is de ‘focal point for levers of soft power […] or persistent ‘engagement’.’[8] In zijn reactie op vragen in het parlement meldde de minister dat de taken deels betrekking hebben op ‘Special Influence Methods, including providing information on activities, key leader engagement, operations security and media engagement.’[9]

Beïnvloeding in of via het informatiedomein, al dan niet samen met actie in het fysieke domein, werd in Nederland tot voor kort ­– uitzonderingen daargelaten – hoofdzakelijk in theorie en met de mond beleden.[10] Een nieuwe Defensie Communicatie Strategie en het Defensie Cyber Commando zijn welkome (maar jonge) aanwinsten voor beïnvloeding en het genereren van effecten in het informatiedomein. Steeds meer officieren omarmen gelukkig het idee dat een constellatie aan capaciteiten ­– fysiek, digitaal, cognitief of virtueel – een grote variëteit aan effecten kan sorteren. En steeds meer officieren doen ervaring op met activiteiten zoals key leader engagement, information operations, public affairs, presence, posture & profile, het overkoepelende stratcom, het belang van een (counter-)narrative of het juridische aanpakken van resources van strijdgroepen. Met capture in plaats van kill, het uitbouwen van de rule of law of de inzet van soft cyber in plaats van fysieke actie. Kort en goed: activiteiten waarbij het signaal, de boodschap net zo belangrijk kan zijn als de – fysieke of niet-fysieke – actie zelf.

Deze gestage praktijk vraag om een complete inbedding naar de drie componenten van militair vermogen (fysiek, conceptueel en mentaal) zodat de effectiviteit niet aan toevalligheden zoals missies wordt overgelaten. Met andere woorden: beïnvloeding via het informatiedomein vraagt om (1) herkenbare en vereiste capaciteiten, inclusief het hiervoor geschoolde personeel dat oog heeft voor de specifieke eisen van het domein en de effecten bij doelgroepen; (2) een helder verwoorde visie van het concept, doel, nut, effect en operationalisering van dit concept; maar bovenal (3) de moed, wil en overtuiging om inhoud en verpakking volmondig gelijk gewicht te geven.

Dit editoriaal moet niet (maar mag wel) als een pleidooi worden opgevat om meer niet-fysieke capaciteiten of effectbrengers in de krijgsmacht onder te brengen. Het is vooral een oproep niet slechts in fysieke actie te denken en ook niét-kinetische capaciteiten en effecten in het informatiedomein te omarmen. En daar met middelen, denkkracht en wilskracht in te voorzien.

[1] Nina Schuyffel, ‘Alweer meer bezoekers voor musea in 2014’, in: de Volkskrant (27-12-2014).

[2] David Kilcullen, The Accidental Guerilla (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009) 300.

[3] Zie: ISIS’ Al-Hayat Media Centre, http://jihadology.net/category/al-%E1%B8%A5ayat-media-center/ en het tijdschrift Dabiq, www.clarionproject.org/news/islamic-state-isis-isil-propaganda-magazine-... evenals al- Qaida’s Al-Shahab, in: Carloen Roelants, ‘Terrorisme bestaat niet zonder communicatie. De mediastrategie van IS’, in: NRC Handelsblad (16-9-2014).

[4] Oekraïne richtte een ‘internetleger’ op, zie: http://3.i-army.org/index_en.php.

[5] http://www.idfblog.com/about-the-idf/idf-spokespersons-unit/.

[6] In die zin: Rupert Smith, The Utility of Force. The Art of War in the Modern World (Londen, Penguin Books, 2005) 288.

[7]  UK Ministry of Defence, Transforming the British Army, blz. 13, via http://www.army.mod.uk/documents/general/Army2020_Report_v2.pdf.

[8] https://britisharmedforcesreview.wordpress.com/2015/01/31/the-security-a....

[9] http://www.parliament.uk/business/publications/written-questions-answers....

[10] Ministerie van Defensie, Nederlandse Defensie Doctrine, 2013, 117 e.v.; en Koninklijke Landmacht, Doctrinepublicatie 3.2 Landoptreden, 2014, Hoofdstuk 4.

Reacties

Ik ben benieuwd hoe dit samen met het volgende editoriaal zijn weg zal vinden in de defensie organisatie.

Een mooie aanvulling is 'Kunst als wapen' van Maarten Hilbrandie (2014), ook naar aanleiding van de foto voor de Nachtwacht.
http://cult.thepostonline.nl/2014/03/31/kunst-als-wapen-het-mag-weer/

very initially "咁都唔使咒罵人地全家喺 豬 啫 當事人喺唔著 但罵嗮人地全家 無需要呀 " 無風起浪? I am/ was very ditoappinsed that my friend BBF who 罵嗮人地全家 無需要呀 that was totally unnecessary at all! Humbly yoursthe inner space

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